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Fishery, Developing Stages Of Fish And How To Make Earnings From Fish Farming.

Discussion in 'Agriculture Business' started by Celestina Angel Serome, Jul 20, 2019.


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  1. Celestina Angel Serome

    Celestina Angel Serome Administrator Staff Member

    Fishery is one of the top leading farm businesses in Nigeria. The high demand for catfish has made this business a good source of income for many individuals.

    The term fishery refers to the business or practice of catching fish for food; fishing. Most fisheries are marine, rather than fresh water; most marine fisheries are based near the coast. This is not only because harvesting from shallow waters is easier than in the open ocean, but also because fish are much more abundant near the coastal shelf, due to coastal upwelling and the abundance of nutrients available there.

    Catfish farming is the most popular fish farming in Nigeria.Here are some starting steps for a fish farm business.


    The fingerlings can be obtained through artificial propagation in the hatcheries through hormonal instinction. It is usually more affordable and reliable in Nigeria. But despite the beauty of induced spawning; there are challenges which you must face : both biotic and abiotic challenges, and they are:

    Extra care has to be given to the fry during the first week of life and also provision of zooplankton which serves as feeds for the larva. fry and fingerlings play a major role on their growth and survival.

    Another challenge is the problem of cannibalism, heavy prediction by frogs/aquatic insects and abiotic challenges, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen etc. It is mandatory to cover the tanks with mosquito nets, so as to keep the predatory insects away. Keep in mind that the brood stocks to use for the purpose of breeding should be between 0.3kg and 2kg.

    If you intend to go into catfish farming in Nigeria, it is important to know about the developing stages and how to handle them.

    Growth stages :

    Ichthyoplankton (planktonic or drifting fish) are the eggs and larvae of fish. They are usually found in the sunlit zone of the water column, less than 200 metres deep, sometimes called the epipelagic or photic zone. Ichthyoplankton are planktonic, meaning they cannot swim effectively under their own power, but must drift with ocean currents. Fish eggs cannot swim at all, and are unambiguously planktonic. Early stage larvae swim poorly, but later stage larvae swim better and cease to be planktonic as they grow into juveniles. Fish larvae are part of the zooplankton that eat smaller plankton, while fish eggs carry their own food supply. Both eggs and larvae are themselves eaten by larger animals.

    Egg stage: Spawning to hatching. This stage is used instead of using an embryonic stage because there are aspects, such as those to do with the egg envelope, that are not just embryonic aspects.

    Larval stage: From hatching till all fin raysare present and the growth of fish scaleshas started (squamation). A key event is when the notochord associated with the tail fin on the ventral side of the spinal cord develops and becomes flexible. A transitional stage, the yolk-sac larval stage, lasts from hatching to the absorption of the yolk-sac.
    Juvenile stage: Starts when the transformation or metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete, that is, when the larva develops the features of a juvenile fish. These features are that all the fin rays are present and that scale growth is under way. The stage completes when the juvenile becomes adult, that is, when it becomes sexually mature or starts interacting with other adults.

    Fry – refers to a recently hatched fish that has reached the stage where its yolk-sac has almost disappeared and its swim bladder is operational to the point where the fish can actively feed for itself.

    Fingerling – refers to a fish that has reached the stage where the fins can be extended and where scales have started developing throughout the body.In this stage, the fish is typically about the size of a finger.

    How to earn money from catfish farming.

    The catfish farming is a lucrative business; it doesn't matter if you have a fat budget to get started or a lean budget, you can start from somewhere and get to the heights you want in this business.

    Here are some ways on how to earn from catfish business :

    1. Hatching : this is the process of producing fingerlings ; that's spawning the male and female catfish to reproduce. The hatching process involves some procedures and conditions that should be met in order to register success. They include water management (PH of water), temperature, managing the fries till they become fingerlings.

    After hatching, you can raise the fries to fingerlings(about 4-5weeks) before you sell them off for profit, or you can train them from fingerlings to juveniles(3-4weeks) before you sell them off.

    Note: to ascertain your profit, you need to calculate the feeding costs, treatment costs, water management costs etc. You can have a small medium, or big hatchery; the size of your hatchery determines the costs implication logically, a small hatchery won't costs as much as a big one.

    2. Raising of table fish: by the table fish; i mean the one that is big enough for consumption from the juvenile stage, you can further train your fishes for 4,5,6 months before selling them off, you can get an average of 1kg in 3months ; it depends on the water management, feeding etc.

    3. Selling of fish feeds: if you have the funds, you can invest in selling of fish feeds. Just like humans need to eat to grow and stay alive, the catfish also needs good food to aid its growth.

    There are different kinds of feeds; both logically made and imported, you can obtain distribution to sell the feeds.

    4. Smoking/drying: smoking/drying the catfish is another great way of making money from the business. Most people love smoked fish, because of the taste of it. You can buy at a cheap rate; smoke/dry them and sell for profits.

    In order to go into this business and make good profits, you need a good experience on how the business works and how to go about handling the fisheries; better management will yield good income.

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